SAS
Solid Waste Management
2019-11-20 17:19:57

After knowing the working mechanism of Mr. Trash Wheel, the main problem which comes in our mind is that still all the waste is collected together. So, to separate the wastes according to their properties, we will find a way so that before coming to dumpster from the conveyor belt of Mr. Trash Wheel, the wastes are separated and further treatment becomes easy.

SAS
Solid Waste Management
2019-11-20 17:19:26

After knowing the working mechanism of Mr. Trash Wheel, the main problem which comes in our mind is that still all the waste is collected together. So, to separate the wastes according to their properties, we will find a way so that before coming to dumpster from the conveyor belt of Mr. Trash Wheel, the wastes are separated and further treatment becomes easy.

SAS
Solid Waste Management
2019-11-20 17:17:39

After knowing the working mechanism of Mr. Trash Wheel, the main problem which comes in our mind is that still all the waste is collected together. So, to separate the wastes according to their properties, we will find a way so that before coming to dumpster from the conveyor belt of Mr. Trash Wheel, the wastes are separated and further treatment becomes easy.

Corrosion Saviors
"Optimisation And Enhancement Of Drying Oil(Linseed Oil ) Based Corrosion Resistant Self-Healing Coating Encapsulated By Graphene Oxide"
2019-11-20 15:59:43

In this week we tried to find the commercial aspects and the other physical factors like temperature and pH that affect our coating. Instead of powder we can use graphene oxide sheets to make the coating since it is very costly. So Instead of buying it directly we can try making it by hummurs method. The coating works effectively between the temperature -63°C and 97°C. Regarding the pH changes : the emulsion is best stable at 1 and decreases as the pH increases.

Inquisitive
electric car batteries
2019-11-20 15:45:24

This week we studied about the root cause of failure of lithium metal batteries that is deposition of lithium metal that break off from the surface of anode during discharging and are trapped as dead lithium that the battery can no longer cycle .The problem can be solved by reading about micro and nanostructures of lithium deposits in different electrolytes.We also came over a method to charge the batteries fast given in link below https://www.popularmechanics.com/cars/hybrid-electric/amp29739841/electric-car-battery-charge-10-minutes/

Mindbenders
ElectroStatic Precipetator
2019-11-20 15:43:43

In this week with the help of our mentor we managed to get a previous model of ESP from CHES. After analysing the given model, we came up with the changes will be making in the model to convert it into a moving ESP. Having decided the materials to be used the basic focus during this week was designing of the circuit of ESP. During this week our team essentially worked on creating a proper circuit trying to position all elements in proper arrangement in order to achieve a compact and efficient model. After checking the cost requirements and material availability for the model, we plan to finalise a circuit design based on which will be working on construction of ESP in the upcoming weeks.

Petrochemical
Methanol Based Fuel.
2019-11-20 03:06:53

Methanol is one of the most important petrochemical products which is produced in large extents worldwide. Nowadays, it is mostly used as a feed in olefin units for production of synthetic engine fuels. In this work, methanol production process, under license of Davy Corporation, is simulated by using HYSYS software. The simulations are carried out for steady state condition. The simulation results were compared with experimental data reported in literature and were in good agreement with the experimental values. The simulation results were also used to determine the optimum conditions for production of methanol. The results of this work can be used for reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy consumption.

Petrochemical
Methanol Based Fuel.
2019-11-20 03:03:19

Methanol is one of the most important petrochemical products which is produced in large extents worldwide. Nowadays, it is mostly used as a feed in olefin units for production of synthetic engine fuels. In this work, methanol production process, under license of Davy Corporation, is simulated by using HYSYS software. The simulations are carried out for steady state condition. The simulation results were compared with experimental data reported in literature and were in good agreement with the experimental values. The simulation results were also used to determine the optimum conditions for production of methanol. The results of this work can be used for reduction of greenhouse gas emission and energy consumption.

Petro-techno
Analysis and stimulation
2019-11-19 16:43:31

THE FEASIBILITY OF CONVERTING CANNABIS SATIVA OIL INTO BIODIESEL Biodiesel is the group of monoalkyl eaters of long chain fatty acids derived from renewable lipid feedstocks. PREPARATION OF HEMP BIODIESEL Fully refined hemp seed oil was converted to Biodiesel through typical two-step base-catalyzed transesterification reaction. Methoxide solutions was first prepared by dissolving 4.5 gram KOH in to 120 ml CH3OH . This methoxide solution was then mixed with 450 gram hemp seed oil in a three-neck flask so that the oil:CH3OH molar ratio was 1:6 with the presence of 1wt.%(relative to oil)KOH catalyst. The mixture was heated and stirred at 50°C for 20 min. and then allowed to settle until the completion of phase separation. The bottom layer containing byproduct glycerol and unreacted CH3OH was drawn out of the three-neck flask. Another 50ml methoxide solutions containing 2.3gram KOH was then added and the stirrer started to permit a second transesterification reaction to take place for 10 Min. at 50°c . After the completion of the two-step base-catalyzed transesterification reaction, excess reactants, catalyst and the byproduct in the fuel product were removed by gently rinsing with distilled water. The moisturized fuel product was dried by air bubbling. The dried fuel product was then tested

SWAS
Solid Waste Treatment
2019-11-19 16:35:20

Another type of pyrolysis reactor is fluidized bed reactor.Fluidized bed reactors are the most popular configurations employed from laboratory to commercial scale. These reactors are widely used in petroleum and chemical processing industries. Fluidized bed reactors are more efficient because the feedstock input and bio-oil production are continuous. Fluidized bed reactors also use a heat carrier composed of small inorganic particles that are very efficient in providing high heat-transfer rates with uniform bed temperatures. The feedstock particles are fed into the fluidized bed at its bottom and travel through the heated inorganic particles by the introduction of pressurized gas also at the reactor bottom. This pressurized gas forces both feedstock and inorganic particles to fluidize causing movement of feedstock particles vertically through the reactor. High heat-transfer rates are provided by the intimate contact between the small inorganic particles often sand and the feedstock particles. These high heat-transfer rates contribute to high bio-oil yields . Fluidized bed reactors have the property of “self-cleaning,” which means that by-product char is carried out of the reactor with the product gases and vapors, considering the biomass is of relatively narrow particle size distribution. Cyclones are utilized to separate char particles from the pyrolysis vapor prior to vapor condensation.

SWAS
Solid Waste Treatment
2019-11-19 16:30:13

There are different types of Reactors. One of which we have recently studied is fixed bed reactor.Fixed bed pyrolysis systems consist of a reactor with a fixed bed of feedstock pyrolyzed as a batch reaction. Fixed bed reactor technology is simple, reliable, and proven effective for fuels with biomass feed particles of uniform size. The feedstock is heated by external application of heat to the reactor. The major drawback to fixed bed pyrolysis is its batch nature, which renders it noneconomic. These type of reactors are mainly used for research and small-scale heat and power applications.

SWAS
Solid Waste Treatment
2019-11-19 16:14:47

There are different types of Reactors. One of which we have recently studied is fixed bed reactor.Fixed bed pyrolysis systems consist of a reactor with a fixed bed of feedstock pyrolyzed as a batch reaction. Fixed bed reactor technology is simple, reliable, and proven effective for fuels with biomass feed particles of uniform size. The feedstock is heated by external application of heat to the reactor. The major drawback to fixed bed pyrolysis is its batch nature, which renders it noneconomic. These type of reactors are mainly used for research and small-scale heat and power applications.

Power9
Graphene Oxide: A promising Nano-material for energy and Environmental applications.
2019-11-18 18:58:23

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1b6447eb_NUDxZ1vv7lwpTptt-idq4VBw/view?usp=sharing In this week, we learnt the new efficient ways in which graphene oxide can serve as an effective anticancer drug, also we thought upon an idea : for some diseases(eg. common cold), gO based nanocarriers can be made installed in the human body permanently. this will cause Immediate action of the medicines on the virus and thereby curing the body without the appearance of its effects.

Three Strings
Plastic to Fuel
2019-11-18 14:36:26

We Found Out That The Current Methodology Is Batch Reactor ,Which Is Slow, So To Improve The Overall Process, We Came Up With The Idea Of A Screw Conveyor Reactor Which Would Make The Process Continuous And Thus Much Faster Overall Processing. In The Upcoming Time, We Are Going To Research More On Screw Conveyor And Come Up With A Design For It.

Three Strings
Plastic to Fuel
2019-11-18 14:35:44

We Found Out That The Current Methodology Is Batch Reactor ,Which Is Slow, So To Improve The Overall Process, We Came Up With The Idea Of A Screw Conveyor Reactor Which Would Make The Process Continuous And Thus Much Faster Overall Processing. In The Upcoming Time, We Are Going To Research More On Screw Conveyor And Come Up With A Design For It.

Three Strings
Plastic to Fuel
2019-11-18 14:34:04

We Found Out That The current methodology Is Batch reactor ,which is slow, So To Improve The Overall Process, We Came Up With The Idea Of a Screw Conveyor Reactor Which Would Make The Process Continuous And Thus Much Faster Overall Processing. in the upcoming time, we are going to research more on screw conveyor and come up with a design for it,

Three Strings
Plastic to Fuel
2019-11-18 14:08:49

We visited a industry in surat for finding out the solution of slag removal and dedusting and found out the process of LDPE washing system which is used for removal of slag,also saw the process of extrusion moulding in which waste plastic was converted into plastic beads of usable form and found the efficiency of the plant was nearly 30-35% and they convert 30-40 TONNES of plastic on daily basis overall it was a great experience.

ChES-Admin
Administrator
2019-11-13 02:18:17

The score for this week are updated. The maximum points are 70. Those teams sharing PPT links please ensure that your link sharing is on in G-Drive.

Mindbenders
ElectroStatic Precipetator
2019-11-11 03:35:07

https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cusFgeypU6GK9Jz-ZDwIwz5eIRoW0Ryg Presentation link!

Corrosion Saviors
"Optimisation And Enhancement Of Drying Oil(Linseed Oil ) Based Corrosion Resistant Self-Healing Coating Encapsulated By Graphene Oxide"
2019-11-10 21:40:29

Further literature survey made us infer that for the formation of a homogeneous coating direct application is not an effective solution( when a cost-effective solution is thought of). To apply that final coating to a material, direct and indirect heat is required. In the future, we will begin to envision our assumption of using nanocomposite of GO & PF as a stabilizer(Emulsifier) theoretically. The impacts of pressure, pH, the temperature on the coating needs a further study. And most importantly, finding the optimum composition of GO & PF in the coating which forms a pickering Emulsion. https://drive.google.com/file/d/1PdYBppoHPrCfgLfF_N-26ThUBQjDG80V/view?usp=drivesdk

Novo Rudolfs
Innovation in Biodiesel production
2019-11-10 20:59:51

Our team was able to collect relevant data for initiating experiments regarding our first phase of action i.e. Categorizing feedstocks for easy production of bio diesel. A new angle was added to our research about the use of CaO catalyst extracted from egg shells that had thorough analysis by the team,after being presented successfully in front of the faculty. Members also went through research papers published by institutes like ICT BOMBAY to assemble a feasible procedure to perform, using egg shells as eco-friendly heterogeneous catalyst as mentioned above. This lead to further investigation of other such CaO carrying extracts (other than egg shells) which can be coupled with feedstocks we listed to collect.

Power9
Graphene Oxide: A promising Nano-material for energy and Environmental applications.
2019-11-10 18:39:09

Things Done.. 1) We Went Through A Chunk Of Websites, Articles And Papers. 2) Worked Upon Our Ideas 3) The Process For Making Our Research Paper Will Be Started Soon.

Mindbenders
ElectroStatic Precipetator
2019-11-10 18:06:25

As advised by the faculty advisor, our team strengthened the basic concepts of an Electrostatic precipitator. The execution and implementation of our idea of moving the electrode was primarily focused by our team .Moving to implementation, we decided to use copper/stainless steel as a discharge electrode and aluminum as collecting plate. A transformer will be used to step up the voltage from 230V to several kilovolts. Our innovation to physically move the electrode will be achieved by using a pulley and strips of electrodes connected to the pulley, where the pulley will be rotated by a motor. Thus, strengthening basic concept, execution and implementation was the primarily focused in this week. Our team will work on the design and prioritizes to start the construction of the working model in the upcoming weeks.

Innovation charmers
Vector surveillance
2019-11-10 17:59:59

We have gone through the details of different factors need to be added in the device. Surveyed some different mechanism for entrapping. Focus will be on level 2 sorting of features Checking the feasibility of different factors for incorporating it into the device. G-Drive- https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/10g3Ph0sK8LJ0YKWIePH0uYacb2jWirdh?usp=sharing

Petrochemical
Methanol Based Fuel.
2019-11-10 17:14:46

Additions To Be Presented In Later Presentation Are As Follows:- •Conversion Of Carbon di Oxide To Carbon Monoxide. •Removal Of Harmful Components(Nox) And Production Of Sulphuric Acid From Sox Of Flue Gas By Filters. •Methanol Reactor (3 Reactor Design) Simulation. https://photos.app.goo.gl/Jh6ZCyf2XBCrpBEC9 https://drive.google.com/file/d/1FC4zhXtfL2XlwfVPfRizTYv9SLkGZfXP/view?usp=drivesdk

Inquisitive
electric car batteries
2019-11-10 16:39:39

This week we studied about the lithium metal batteries which can be The alternative battery technology to be used in evs. We studied about the lithium ion batteries, its working, its advantages over lithium ion and challenges faced by it. In the coming week we are going to study about how to solve the challenges faced by lithium metal batteries and other technology which can improve battery technology and also implementation of evs in india. Link:https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1a3rMumARUFvQ0091GqB_p7W7APXS8zNz6dDCyuHMk7Y/edit?usp=sharing

Petrochemical
Methanol Based Fuel.
2019-11-10 13:35:07

Methanol Fuel: The Main theme Is Designed As Per The Norms Of Niti Aayog Of Methanol As Future Fuel Starting From Petroleum Coke Gasification whose product is obtained as Flue Gas With Flue Gas Treatment And Further Processing And Removal Of Polluting Gases Nox through Filters The Production Of Sulphuric Acid And Production Of Syngas Which later Turns Out To Produce Methanol As Product Using Three Reactor Design With Heating Cooling Mechanism .

Petrochemical
Methanol Based Fuel.
2019-11-10 13:34:46

Methanol Fuel: The Main theme Is Designed As Per The Norms Of Niti Aayog Of Methanol As Future Fuel Starting From Petroleum Coke Gasification whose product is obtained as Flue Gas With Flue Gas Treatment And Further Processing And Removal Of Polluting Gases Nox through Filters The Production Of Sulphuric Acid And Production Of Syngas Which later Turns Out To Produce Methanol As Product Using Three Reactor Design With Heating Cooling Mechanism .

Three Strings
Plastic to Fuel
2019-11-10 12:18:01

for efficient melting of plastics,we have thought of making a rotating chamber in which plastics would be placed.this would ensure balanced heating in all portions and not one section of plastics,also we are looking forward to visit a plastic pyrolysis plant to know about slag removal from melting chamber.the current plants face issues of efficient removal of slag which causes irregular heating of plastics.this is point we are going to focus in the upcoming week.

ChES-Admin
Administrator
2019-11-10 10:38:20

Presentation scores are added to the first assessment. The curent score is the total of both and maximum is 60.

SWAS
Solid Waste Treatment
2019-11-09 03:32:14

The technology we Are using is growing in popularity and in demand. Commercial machines For home are still expensive. But with the following method, you can convert plastic waste to fuel all by yourself. We are working on the construction of prototype pyrolysis reactor which consist of a robust leak proof reactor chamber, condensation tube , a system for monitoring the temperature and a system which effectively condense and collect the mixture of products.

ChES-Admin
Administrator
2019-11-06 18:05:09

Gear Up Guys! The Leaderboard would be updated soon.

Power9
Graphene Oxide: A promising Nano-material for energy and Environmental applications.
2019-11-04 13:48:59

The new nanocarriers based on graphene and graphene oxide for drug delivery applications. Two-dimensional graphene offers interesting electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties that are currently being explored for advanced electronics, membranes, and composites. Here we synthesize and explore the biological applications of nano-graphene oxide (NGO), i.e., single-layer graphene oxide sheets down to a few nanometers in lateral width. We develop functionalization chemistry in order to impart solubility and compatibility of NGO in biological environments. We obtain size separated pegylated NGO sheets that are soluble in buffers and serum without agglomeration. The NGO sheets are found to be photoluminescent in the visible and infrared regions. The intrinsic photoluminescence (PL) of NGO is used for live cell imaging in the near-infrared (NIR) with little background. We found that simple physisorption via π-stacking can be used for loading doxorubicin, a widely used cancer drug onto NGO functionalized with antibody for selective killing of cancer cells in vitro. Owing to its small size, intrinsic optical properties, large specifi c surface area, low cost, and useful non-covalent interactions with aromatic drug molecules, NGO is a promising new material for biological and medical applications.

Innovation charmers
Vector surveillance
2019-11-01 14:07:04

Aim Of The Project This project is focused for developing a device for rural and urban India which would be helpful in generating precision data for • predicting disease outbreak. • Checking the proliferation of mosquito vector. • Checking vector population density in a specified area. • Frequent check of disease at abandoned areas or rarely visited sites. • It would be helpful in efficient data management for genetically modified vector (becoming resistant to commonly used repellent).

SAS
Solid Waste Management
2019-10-23 11:48:16

Mr. Trash wheel is trash interceptor ,which is powered by the current from the river and backup power is provided by solar panels. It uses the power of nature to clean trash from river surface .After carefully reading and understanding the mechanism of mr. Trash wheel,we found some idea to improvise the efficiency of trash wheel. During rainy and stormy weather, the river current and flow rate is high which also leads to the high amount of trash. So, at that time we need large storage area at dumpster otherwise we have to change dumpster several times in a day. For improvement we are thinking of using compression mechanism which compress the trash and make more space for them. We use special type of dumpster in which piston arrangement are there. After reaching a certain level of trash, it compress the waste and create more space. It solve the problem of replacing dumpster and we can collect more trash.

SAS
Solid Waste Management
2019-10-23 11:47:54

Mr. Trash wheel is trash interceptor ,which is powered by the current from the river and backup power is provided by solar panels. It uses the power of nature to clean trash from river surface .After carefully reading and understanding the mechanism of mr. Trash wheel,we found some idea to improvise the efficiency of trash wheel. During rainy and stormy weather, the river current and flow rate is high which also leads to the high amount of trash. So, at that time we need large storage area at dumpster otherwise we have to change dumpster several times in a day. For improvement we are thinking of using compression mechanism which compress the trash and make more space for them. We use special type of dumpster in which piston arrangement are there. After reaching a certain level of trash, it compress the waste and create more space. It solve the problem of replacing dumpster and we can collect more trash.

Inquisitive
electric car batteries
2019-10-22 17:23:04

We Studied About The Electric Cars, How They Work, What Are The Problem Faced In Increasing Use Of It. The Problem Faced In Increasing Use Of Electric Cars Is Mainly Due To Battery Problems And Time Taken For Charging Electric Vehicles. We Also Studied The Problems Faced In India Such As Battery Technology And Less Number Of Charging Stations. Overall We Covered The Structural Components Of Evs Including How It Get Charged And How It Works. We also studied about the battery technology,how it gets charged, how it works, about lithium metal and lithium ion batteries, overall working of batteries. We also read about the market of different companies in india and also in foreign countries. We also read about the battery management system of evs which help in increasing the battery life of evs.

ChES-Admin
Administrator
2019-10-21 07:53:28

All the Best Everyone. Hope you perform well on the first assessment.

Petrochemical
Methanol Based Fuel.
2019-10-17 08:24:46

1.Gassifier Design.(Dual Bed). 2.Methanol Reactor design. 3.SNOx Extension(Using flue Gas Input And Producing Synthesis Gas).

SAS
Solid Waste Management
2019-10-15 09:17:58

As we have mentioned above, Mr. Trash Wheel is very effective way to collect plastic solid waste that floats on river or at riverbank.Mr. Trash Wheel is a semi-autonomous trash interceptor which uses a unique blend of solar and hydro power to pull hundreds of tons of trash out of the water each year.It includes 4 steps.Step 1: Funnel the trash Using containment booms, trash flowing down the river is funneled into Mr. Trash Wheel's gaping mouth.Step 2: Rake and Convey.Mr. Trash Wheel's rake life litter out of the water and onto his moving conveyor belt that can lift anything including heavy weight like trees.Step:3 Feel the churn. The energy source for Mr. Trash Wheel is water tidal energy but when there's not enough water current, solar panels power pumps that pump water onto the wheel to keep it churning. Step 4: Into the Dumpster.When trash reaches the top of conveyor belt it falls into a dumpster sitting on a seperate floating barge.

Three Strings
Plastic to Fuel
2019-10-15 09:13:17

we found out the order of plastics which when converted to oil give the highest calorific value. PS can be converted nearly 90% to oil without the use of any catalyst and has nearly the same calorific value as that of diesel. temperature required is nearly 450 degree celcius . PVC is the least preferred due to evolution of HCl fumes during pyrolysis.

Inquisitive
electric car batteries
2019-10-15 05:55:14

In Last Week We Studied About The Electric Cars, How They Work, What Are The Problem Faced In Increasing Use Of It. The Problem Faced In Increasing Use Of Electric Cars Is Mainly Due To Battery Problems And Time Taken For Charging Electric Vehicles. We Also Studied The Problems Faced In India Such As Battery Technology And Less Number Of Charging Stations. Overall We Covered The Structural Components Of Evs Including How It Get Charged And How It Works. In The Coming Week We Are Going To Study How To Improve Battery Technology And Also Business Of Economic Aspects Of Evs.

Corrosion Saviors
"Optimisation And Enhancement Of Drying Oil(Linseed Oil ) Based Corrosion Resistant Self-Healing Coating Encapsulated By Graphene Oxide"
2019-10-14 20:09:54

Initially, we found that *“Self-assembled graphene oxide microcapsules(GOMC) in a Pickering emulsion with Linseed oil which are embedded into waterborne Polyurethane(PU) matrix forms self-healing composite coatings"*. We had envisioned for an ideal self-healing coating where we can optimize either the *Matrix* which can be Polyurethane(PU), Phenol Formaldehyde or even epoxy ; *Drying Oil* can be either Linseed Oil, Tung Oil, Poppy Seed Oil, Walnut Oil etc. to commercialize the coating. We also came across phenol-formaldehyde which can be used along with graphene oxide and linseed oil in the PU (Polyurethane) matrix which also shows the same anti-corrosive and self-healing properties. This composite shows good thermal stability and good tribological properties i.e its wear & tear properties.

Mindbenders
ElectroStatic Precipetator
2019-10-14 18:37:25

Having decide our Problem statement i.e Electrostatic precipitator with movable electode . In this week , we thoroughly studied various research papers on Electrostatic precipitator to dive deeper into working of ESP and understanding the fundamentals associated with its Working. Our team studied various parts involved in an electrostatic precipitator and arranged team meetings to prepare for a working model of ESP where biggest challenge lies in physically moving the electrode . Choice Of materials to be used in our Esp were discussed and reviewed by our mentor .The design for a working model of our Optimized Esp is still in development phase focussing on a compact and efficient design. This overall experiment can be a really good science fair project for demonstration, but for optimisation, various factor comes into play like plate voltage, dust/particle layer thickness on plate, velocity of flow gas and resistivity of air which will be tackled in upcoming weeks.

Novo Rudolfs
Innovation in Biodiesel production
2019-10-14 18:36:56

As our team proceeds with the preparation associated with the experiments regarding our chosen topic of biodiesel, our team had to look into some complications regarding the transesterification process(In the transesterification process a glyceride reacts with an alcohol (typically methanol or ethanol) in the presence of a catalyst forming fatty acid alkyl esters and an alcohol) before further advancements. The first such obstacle we might face is the water content of the raw material (waste cooking oil) and how it could be tackled. Physically, cloudier the batch of oil, higher is the water content which may reduce ester formation and accelerates hydrolysis which causes hindrance in transesterification. Ideally, the water content of less than 0.5% gives a batch of 90% pure biodiesel. As the team would be further diving into an analysis of different catalysts, the groundwork ought to include the conventional acid-based catalyst also, which in-fact gets critical with high water content as there is already water generation as a byproduct in this type of catalysis. Also in the case of base-based catalysis, where NaOH is the fastest catalyst we can use in homogenous catalysis, soap formation is the biggest hindrance. One of the resolutions that we came up with was the evaporation of water by boiling nearly at 120°C, and thereafter absorbing the water vapors by a third-party agent, for example: Anhydrous sodium sulfate, magnesium sulfate, calcium chloride, etc. Heating has to be done carefully as it raises the chance of an explosion during the experimentation. Regarding the soap and water criticality, the heterogeneous catalyst is one of the main focus of our team in order to overcome the above hindrances, as this catalyst is independent of factors like water content and FFA value (homogenous only works under 0.3%).

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